A single-line diagram (SLD) is a high-level schematic diagram showing how incoming power is distributed to the equipment. It is the blueprint for ...Read More
Conducting load flow studies is an important requirement for the operations. The load flow analysis is an important part of the power system ....Read More
Short circuit study is the process of analyzing an electrical system to determine the magnitude of fault currents that flows during ...Read More
Protective device coordination is the very important part of design for a electrical network as a part of Power system .....Read More
VB, is a leader and arc flash risk assessment partner for more than 500 global industries. Electrical arc flash is an electrical hazard present ...Read More
Harmonic analysis is the process of identifying the harmonic distortions that occur ...Read More
The data of the circuit breakers, switch gear, transformers, feeders, fuses, type of grounding, MCCs through out the facility are acquired. From the existing data electrical drawings are verified. And in the absence of any Single line diagrams are developed. We deploy the data in software like ETAP, Easy power, TANTRA, SKM Power tools to develop the most contemporary and cost effective Single line diagrams. The inclusion of the data acquired in the field survey ensures that Arc Flash Risk Assessment is made possible at each of the equipment and the Arc Flash Hazard is identified at all possible circuits.
Identify the causes of Arc Flash
In practical scenarios it is observed that Arc Flash is caused in cases of careless working practices like unawareness on part of the working personnel, not using the required PPE for the needed job, dropping of tools, creeping currents, rodent infestation, poor maintenance resulting in the accumulation of dirt and dust. Failure of protective relays, circuit breakers, are also a major cause of Arc Flash, switching actions like opening and closing the contacts of loads, clamps etc. Damaged parts that need to be replaced, working on energised lines. As per NFPA 70 E regulations, working on energised lines is confined to trouble shooting and testing conditions. And in some cases where the deenergising of the line may have drastic effect on the production, the companies opt to work on energised lines. It is the main responsibility of the management rather than the manufacturers of the equipment to indicate the Arc Flash Hazard labelling on the equipment.
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This is a pivotal procedure in Arc Flash Hazard Analysis, Arc Flash Calculation, Arc Flash study calculations. Arc Flash risk assessment is to identify the parts of the network which is at a RISK of an Arc Flash Hazard. A fault current or a faulty switching action can lead to an arc flash. Hence the complete data of the equipment in the facility is to be VERIFIED. Data acquisition is performed by our team of engineers at your facility. The data from the existing records of the facility is cumulated with the data acquired on the field. We strongly recommend a field survey just before the Arc Flash Analysis rather than rely wholly on the existing data. A more practical possibilities of an Arc Flash could be identified accurately in a field survey and accomplish Arc Flash Calculation.
Analysis on the data from field survey and one line diagrams and the risk of Arc Flash Hazard at the equipment is determined. Arc Flash Hazard is most commonly seen in operating voltages more than 240V. From the fault currents, ratings of the protective devices, load currents, branch currents and the required RMS values are obtained. The possible equipment at which an Arc Flash Hazard is probable are identified in Arc Flash Analysis.
Arc Flash Study comprises of the Arc Flash Calculation to determine the Arc Flash Hazard at a particular equipment. Arc Flash Analysis is established at each equipment and the equipment that are at a risk of Arc Flash are identified. The severity of the Arc Flash is obtained from the Arc Flash Calculation. IEEE 1584-2018 has formulated several equations and the required mathematical models for Arc Flash Calculation. The incident energy, Arc fault currents and the bolted fault currents are the decisive values in Arc Flash Calculation. From the incident energy the Hazard Risk Category is determined. The Arc Flash boundaries are also calculated in Arc Flash Calculation. HRC enables in suggesting the right PPE for the desired operation. The required PPE is also determined by the Arc Flash Boundaries, whether the operating personnel is in the restricted approach, limited approach or in the prohibited approach area. Even if the operating personnel is qualified and experienced the standards of electrical safety regulations like OSHA, NFPA 70 E, NEC suggest that the required PPE is made a regular practice in Arc Flash Hazard environment. Also, many a practical incidents SHOW that the severity of the injuries in the event of an arc flash could have been a lot more less with the use of the right PPE.
Arc Flash though is an unanticipated incident, certain practices can reduce the event of an Arc Flash effectively. Some of them include on the safe and vigilant working attitude of the working personnel. To be mindful of the tools and parts required for the operation, regular maintenance of the circuit breakers and relays to ensure their operation is in order , proper cleaning so as to avoid the dust and dirt accumulation, keep the small animals at bay like setting traps so as to avoid rodent infestation , following the suggestions from the Arc Flash Study report choosing the appropriate enclosures for the conductors such that the weather conditions do not cause a deposit of moisture, Appropriate PPE usage, alert in identifying warning signs while operating, periodic Arc Flash study at your facility. As per standards, a periodic Arc Flash study at the facility and maintaining a record of all the Arc Flash study reports eases the fines levied in an event of an Arc Flash, easy and hasslefree insurance claims and avert the possible damage and compromise on the quality of production at the facility and most importantly, avoid fatal injuries and safe working environment at the facility are ensured.
The proper working of the protective devices in an event of an Arc Flash plays a very important role. Short circuit coordination is about the coordinated operation of the protective relays with the TCC and the delay timings, tripping timings taken into consideration and assigning of the settings for the protective devices to trip for the necessary current ratings of arc Flash and not for any other faults. This ensures that the healthy network is at the minimal disruption in an event of an Arc Flash thus ensuring the continuous operation of the facility without any outage. In short circuit coordination study, the switchgear, circuit breakers, fuses, enclosure types of the conductors and the relay operation settings are calculated. All the data acquired is modelled with software like Easy power, ETAP, SKM in compliance with the OEM configuration settings. From the fault current values and the operation time settings of the protective devices, Short circuit coordination is realised.
Arc Flash Study at your facility is supported by the Arc Flash calculation training to the working personnel. A qualified and Arc Flash hazard trained personnel is noted to put the safe working practices there by mitigating a lot of Arc Flash hazards and to ensure that your facility is a safe working place. We provide the Arc Flash Hazard training for the workers so that the workers understand the arc flash risk and the possible consequences of not following the operating measures set up on the Arc Flash Hazard Labels. Arc Flash calculation training also helps the workers in choosing the right PPE and follow the right operating practices complying to the Arc Flash Boundaries.
VB Engineering is an expert in providing engineering solutions to a variety of clientele. We are a renowned and dedicated professionals in Arc Flash Study and Arc Flash Hazard Analysis of businesses of all sizes. Our Arc Flash hazard analysis meets all the arc flash study requirements in compliance to the standards like OSHA, NFPA 70 E ,IEEE 1584-2018. Arc Flash occurs with a high intensity of heat, light and sound energy with pressure wave that could cause fatal injuries, not to mention the damage to the equipment and hinder production. Any business enthrals with a continuous production and any outage may cause a loss in production. Arc Flash hazard analysis at your facility ensures a safe working environment and methods of mitigating the arc flash so as to alter the Arc Flash Hazard effects. An unintended path followed by the fault current leads to an Arc Flash. Arc Blast causes a release of an enormous heat energy that might be five times the heat on the surface of the sun melting the conductors and sending a large blast of plasma, molten metal, shrapnel directed towards the operating personnel. The flash in the incident of an Arc Flash is so blinding and may cause severe damage to eyesight. The ionised air and the vapours combine to form toxic gases which cause severe health hazards when inhaled. Arc Flash hazards are thus forms a predicament on the part of the management to be addressed.