A single-line diagram (SLD) is a high-level schematic diagram showing how incoming power is distributed to the equipment. It is the blueprint for ...Read More
Conducting load flow studies is an important requirement for the operations. The load flow analysis is an important part of the power system ....Read More
Short circuit study is the process of analyzing an electrical system to determine the magnitude of fault currents that flows during ...Read More
Protective device coordination is the very important part of design for a electrical network as a part of Power system .....Read More
VB, is a leader and arc flash risk assessment partner for more than 500 global industries. Electrical arc flash is an electrical hazard present ...Read More
Harmonic analysis is the process of identifying the harmonic distortions that occur ...Read More
A periodic Arc Flash study at your installation by professional arc flash study company can
result in impeding a number of causes of arc flash. The causes of an Arc Flash hazard are as
Faulty switching practices.
Accumulation of moisture, dirt and dust.
Carelessness of the operating personnel or the idea of restoring the operating conditions rapidly, overconfidence, improper use of required PPE, dropping of tools, employment of improper insulated tools, not following the Arc Flash Hazard labels, neglecting the Arc Flash approach boundaries.
A rodent infestation, moisture due to weather conditions, low maintenance of the switchgear, circuit breakers causing creeping currents paving a way of energising the arc fault current.
Failure of operation of clamps, contactors and other protective relays, devices.
Damaged parts of switchgear aging factor
Arc Flash or Arc Blast is the rapid release of enormous energy under fault conditions. When the fault current is energised by the creeping currents, conductive paths caused by moisture or accumulation of dust etc., causing the ionisation of the air around the conductors making it a low resistance path. The dielectric caused by the ionised air is accompanied by the blast of plasma, molten metal , vapourised gases in all directions. The blast is associated with large amounts of heat energy that is many times more than the heat on sun's surface. A very bright flash of light can cause severe damage to the eyes even blindness. The sound of about 160 DB can cause auditory perception problems as it can damage the ear drum. A projectile of all these energies in a very short span of time causes a pressure wave that can result in fatal injuries and a significant damage of electrical equipment and other expensive equipment in the installation. Arc Flash Study at the installation is performed by arc flash study company and the prominent manoeuvre in arc flash hazard analysis is in the arc flash risk assessment. Identifying the devices or equipment that are prone to an arc flash hazard.
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An arc flash hazard can occur at any part
or device within the electrical network. Arc Flash study requirements is met with the entire data
acquired at the installation. From the power sources to load points, bus bars, transformers, switchgear,
circuit breakers, MCCs, type of grounding, phases, operating voltage, Arcing currents, current ratings
of the protective relays, type of enclosure, motors and generators, impedance, X/R ratios, probable
fault currents, duration of arcing currents, fault currents, tripping times of the protective relays,
fault clearing and arc quenching practices that are currently employed, safety measures that are in
order at the installation and so on. As seen the data is vast and complex. Further more the process
requires such data acquisition at each and every part of the system and at every device. At VB
Engineering the team of experienced engineers drop in at the facility to acquire the data, tabulate it
and also prepare the one line diagrams. Data acquisition by a walk through at the firm ensures that all
the points are considered and all the devices, name plate details are acquired such that the entire
information is gathered and identify any new enhancements or changes to be done at load side, feeder
side or the protective relays and switchgear. The one line diagrams are REALISED by the implementation
of up to date software like ETAP, TANTRA, EASY POWER and SKM tools. The one line diagrams help the
supervisory officers and the safety personnel at the firm to identify easily the arc flash hazard.
Arc Flash Study Requirements emphasise on the total data to be analysed, identify arc flash risk at different devices, mark the devices where the possibility of arc flash is high. Calculation of incident energy and mitigating methods are mandatory to be followed in arc flash study requirements.
The data collected from the one line diagrams enables to identify the modes of operation employing the information of number of buses, bus bars configurations, tie breakers employed, transformer ratings and sizes, MCCs, generators and feeders, circuit breakers. The knowledge of the modes of operation allows the determination of the short circuit currents.
IEEE 1584-2018 provides with mathematical models to safety officers, electrical engineers to determine
the Arc flash hazard Analysis, Short circuit analysis taking into different electrode configurations,
both horizontal and vertical bus bar configurations that are in practice. Different configurations and
the different types of enclosures for the electrodes has a greater impact on the arc flash incident
energy, arcing currents, plasma ball, bolted fault currents and hence determine the arc flash hazard
boundary. Arc Flash hazard boundary is the distance the working personnel can be in the vicinity of an
With the mathematical models, Arc flash Analysis, short circuit coordination study, are flash calculations are brought about at each device and feeders. Short circuit coordination study compares the arcing currents, fuses and circuit breaker time current curves, operating times, tripping times and fault clearing times of relays. With inclusion of the correction factors and values of duty rating short circuit coordination is realised. The values obtained from the short circuit coordination study helps in calculation of Arc Flash Analysis in which the most probable scenarios that lead to an arc flash incident. When the duty rating is of higher value than the fault currents an Arc Flash incident can be avoided. Short circuit coordination study enables to identify the coordinated working of different protective devices connected in the electrical network. The time current characteristics plays an important role in formulating the guidelines for a coordinated protective devices operation so as to avoid the scenario of a complete power outage due to a fault at one part of the system. Arc Flash calculation from the values of normalised incident energy, bolted fault currents, arcing times, gap between the conductors, operating distances meets the arc flash study requirements.
Arc Flash calculations are used in labelling the arc flash hazard at all the equipment. The arc flash
risk assessment and the labelling of arc flash hazard with details pertaining to the incident energy,
arc fault currents, operating voltage, Arc flash boundary and the required PPE are the paramount arc
flash study requirements. At VB Engineering, we provide with the proper arc flash hazard labelling and
the required PPE for different categories of arc flash in accordance with the safety standards of OSHA,
NEC, NFPA 70 E.
Qatar, being one of the countries with highest per capita income insists that the domestic and business
establishments maintain a safe workplace. The arc flash study cost outweighs the expense and aids in
providing a safe work place to its employees. At VB Engineering we provide arc flash training to the
safety personnel and the electrical workers to follow the necessary guidelines provided in the Arc flash
Study report. The arc flash study report is formulated taking into consideration the previous arc flash
study reports if any for the establishment or formulate the arc flash study report that can e continued
on in the later days in case of a new establishment. Thus, an Arc Flash study cost in a new or a running
establishment proves to be an important investment by the management. VB Engineering with its wide range
of expertise conducts the arc flash survey at your facility complying to the size and type of the
facility. And with the size of the installation the arc flash study cost may vary. Arc Flash Hazard
analysis and formulating the arc flash study report based on the arc flash survey in compliance to the
arc flash study requirements is our specialisation.
Arc flash survey at the facility
Perform Arc Flash Study periodically at the facility
Arc flash calculation at risky equipment for all possible operating and fault conditions that may arise in practice.
Maintain a record of the Arc flash Study report as guidelines for the operating conditions and for future use.
Implementing the suggestions proposed in the arc flash survey and hence improve the reliability of the system.
Provide the necessary Arc Flash hazard labelling and the required PPE . Improving the work practices by providing training to the working personnel.
These are some of the crucial considerations of any management in setting up a safe working environment. Contact VB Engineering for Arc Flash study at your firm today and safe guard your facility with a team of expert engineers in the field.
Among various Arc Flash Study companies, that perform arc flash study, VB Engineering is a reputed arc flash study company offering its services globally to a wide range of clientele of different sizes. Arc Flash can take place at any installation irrespective of operating voltage and size of the firm if sufficient energy is present in energising the arc which is not mitigated. And an event of Arc flash hazard at an installation with highly flammable environment like chemical industry, oil and natural gas plants, petroleum industries has devastating effects. Arc Flash is a predominant predicament to be addressed in the industries. Statistical data shows that over 20% of workplace injuries are associated with Arc Flash. And as such fire safety and electrical safety regulations are revised with new research developments. A highly industrialised country like Qatar is keen on providing a safe workplace. Arc Flash Study, Arc Flash Hazard Analysis are strictly advised by the government.